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Elements Of Port Operation And Management _BEST_

This book is written to provide a practical overall understanding of the elements of port practice and the management of a competitive, profitable port authority. It deals in simple language with the salient commercial, operating and political aspects of the subject, with particular emphasis on economics and port management. In so doing the book is written not only for the student of the subject, but also for port executives throughout the world. Particular emphasis is placed on the need to strive for complete professionalism in all areas of port operation and management as a means of providing a viable high quality service to sustain and expand international trade passing through the port. This book will help towards establishing that professionalism

Elements of Port Operation and Management

Ports are the pillars of global economy, trade, and transport: Eighty percent of global commodities are carried by water; 2,000 sea ports and 10,000 terminals facilitate world trade by serving over 50,000 ocean-going ships while generating over thirty percent of the global GDP on an annual basis. This powerful sourcebook offers readers the opportunity to enhance their strategic thinking and problem solving skills, while developing market foresight. It covers global port management practices at a regulatory, commercial, technological, operational, financial, and sociopolitical level.Buy from Amazon

The book begins with a historical and organizational perspective on maritime and port security. It then discusses the management of risk assessment, presenting it within the context of the unique vulnerabilities within the maritime and port environments. The author explores the growth of multiuse port facilities for recreation, hospitality, and external business and commercial interests and offers perspectives on the role of technology in security. Finally, the book examines the need to develop contingency and emergency operations plans and work effectively with federal, state, local, and private enterprises in coordinating both routine and emergency response mechanisms.

Following from the success of the first edition, written by a collection of eminent figures in the field, this new edition continues to look at the rational planning for port facilities requirements (berths, storage and cargo handling equipment), organisations, management and operations with relation to planning and design of ports and marine terminals.

If the baseboard management controller (BMC) resources appear in the system BIOS, then ACPI (Plug and Play) detects the BMC hardware, and automatically installs the IPMI driver. Plug and Play support might not be present in all BMCs. If the BMC is detected by Plug and Play, then an Unknown Device appears in Device Manager before the Hardware Management component is installed. When the driver is installed, a new component, the Microsoft ACPI Generic IPMI Compliant Device, appears in Device Manager.

Analyzing and understanding the operational environment is essential to applying the phasing model and setting the theater. Sustainment preparation of the operational environment assists commanders and staffs in identifying environmental factors and in refining the sustainment concept of support.

The analysis of the operational environment is framed within the context of political, military, economic, social, information, infrastructure, physical environment, and time variables. Analysis within the context of these variables facilitates logisticians' understanding of the sustainment support needed to establish the proper conditions in theater for contingency operations designed to achieve the objectives described in national strategic guidance.

Sustainment support is joint, interdependent, and continuously conducted throughout the six phases of the joint phasing model. Once it has been determined that joint force capabilities are required, the combatant commander implements contingency operations plans and builds on the sustainment support begun in the previous phases.

Sustainment planners support the joint force by conducting activities that include theater opening, port opening, Army support to other services, theater distribution, and reception, staging, onward movement, and integration (RSOI). Sustainment operations continue across all phases of the joint model.

Theater opening begins at the deter phase of the joint phasing model. It involves establishing and operating ports of debarkation (air, sea, and rail), a distribution system, and sustainment bases. Theater opening facilitates port throughput for the RSOI of forces within a theater of operations.

Theater opening activities include the deployment of specific capabilities (security forces, port opening teams, and mission command structures) needed to attain host-nation support and to establish port operations required for receiving forces into the theater. Normally, an expeditionary sustainment command conducts the planning, preparation, and execution for theater opening operations for Army forces in theater.

Port opening is a joint mission in which Army forces play a major role. The U.S. Transportation Command and its subordinate service component commands are responsible for managing port operations. The Air Force's Air Mobility Command is responsible for managing aerial ports of debarkation, and the Military Surface Deployment and Distribution Command is responsible for managing sea ports of debarkation.

Army doctrine defines port opening as "the ability to establish, initially operate, and facilitate throughput for ports of debarkation to support unified land operations." The port opening process is considered complete when the supporting infrastructure needed for port operations has been established. Once ports are established and able to receive forces, the Army's sustainment commands organize and control the movement of forces to forward locations for integration with assigned forces.

The goal of theater distribution is to provide operational forces with the materiel and supplies needed to maintain the operational initiative. Establishing the theater distribution network is an essential part of sustainment support and is pivotal to obtaining freedom of movement and action.

The physical network includes the means for distribution (airfields, roads, bridges, railroads, structures, pipelines) and the capabilities for supporting distribution operations. The financial network facilitates distribution operations by providing policies, processes, and systems for the use of fiscal resources.

The informational network is the combination of all information systems that support theater distribution. The communications network links the complex elements of distribution. The combination of the four networks significantly affect the efficacy of the distribution system and the Army's ability to provide sustainment support to the theater.

Winning in a complex environment requires Army forces capable of setting and supporting a theater. Army forces provide strategic land power to the joint force in all six phases of the joint phasing model, and Army sustainment forces facilitate freedom of movement and action during sustained and high-tempo operations.

The Army's set the theater core competency consists of a broad range of actions that are conducted in order to shape the operational environment, deter aggression, and establish the proper conditions in a theater of operations for the execution of strategic, national, and theater plans. The Army's ability to set and support the theater is critical to achieving the goals established in national strategic guidance.

Due to the operational characteristics of maritime transportation, port location is constrained to a limited array of sites, mostly defined by geography. Since ports are bound by the need to serve ships, access to navigable waterways has been historically the most important site consideration. Before the industrial revolution, ships were the most efficient means of transporting goods across all modes. Thus port sites were frequently chosen at the head of water navigation, the most upstream site, such as London on the Thames, Montreal on the St. Lawrence River, or Guangzhou on the Pearl River. Ship drafts were small, so many sites were suitable to be used as ports. Sites on tidal waterways created a particular challenge for shipping because of the twice-daily rise and fall of water levels at the berths. This implied that protected areas such as bays were particularly suitable as port sites.

Conventional break-bulk terminals were mainly focused on direct transshipment from the deepsea vessel to inland transport modes. Direct transshipment is associated with short dwell times, which is the average time the cargo remains stacked on the terminal and during which it waits for some activity to occur. This required only a small temporary storage area on the terminal. Transshipment was very labor-intensive, with operations managed on an ad-hoc basis. It was common due to the lengthy loading or unloading process to have goods move directly from the land mode (trucks or rail) to the ship or vice-versa. Ships staying at berth for several days allowed for a continuous, albeit slow, loading or unloading of the cargo.

The growth of the oil industry in the 1920s and 1930s and the fast rise of the chemical industry in the 1950s and 1960s, (e.g. producing petrochemicals such as plastics) led many ports to expand to locations with ample space for the development of vast Maritime Industrial Development Areas (MIDA). In the 1960s, the gradual shift from conventional break-bulk terminals to container terminals brought about a fundamental change in the layout of terminals as well as site selection. Ports increasingly became impacted by global processes, such as sourcing resources, parts, and goods to other parts of the world. Containerized transportation substantially changed port dynamics to favor the emergence of specialized container ports. As compared to conventional break-bulk cargo ships, most containerships did not have onboard cranes, and container terminal facilities had to provide capital-intensive cranes and ample storage space to stack containers dockside. Finger piers were no longer adequate, and berths were redesigned to accommodate for quick ship turnaround and more effective dockside operations between the crane and the container storage areas. The usual dwell time of a containership is around 24 hours, implying that a containership spends about ten times less in a port than an equivalent break-bulk cargo ship. Containerization has consequently become a fundamental function of global port operations and has changed the structure and configuration of port terminals that tend to occupy more space. In more recent times, ports are also challenged to find enough space to create new large-scale logistics zones in the framework of port-centric logistics and free trade and economic development zones. 041b061a72


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